Category Archives: Church History

Visiting Iznik (Nicea, Nicaea), Turkey – Part 6

Nicea, now identified with Iznik, Turkey, was in the Roman province of Bythinia in Asia. A Roman lawyer named Pliny served as governor of Bithynia and Pontus (A.D. 111-113) and exchanged a series of letters with the Roman Emperor Trajan (A.D. 98-117).

The theater at Nicea was constructed while Pliny was governor of Bithynia. According to the tourism publication on Iznik the theater,

… was converted into a mass graveyard in the 13th century. The graveyard was later replaced by the ceramic kilns. Only some part of the cavea (audience section) of the ancient theatre have survived to the present day. It appears that its stones were used as construction materials especially in the restoration of the city walls.

The theater is estimated to have seated 15,000 persons.

Ruins of the theater dating to the time of Trajan. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Ruins of the theater dating to the reign of the Emperor Trajan. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

From the letters exchanged between Pliny and the Emperor Trajan we know that Christians were persecuted during his reign. (For more information see our post here.)

Emperor Trajan (A.D. 97-117). Louvre. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Emperor Trajan (A.D. 97-117). Louvre. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

There are ruins of a few churches (meaning “meeting places”) in Iznik. No doubt many ruins are under the buildings of the modern city, but the area pictured below marks the site of the Dormitian of the Mother of God (Theotokos = God-bearer). At the Council of Ephesus in A.D. 431 “Theotokos was approved as a right title for the Virgin Mary” (Peter Toon, The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, p. 344). Sources such as Philip Schaff provide much more detailed information for those interested.

Sign at site of Dormitian of the Theotokos, built by Hyakinthos. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Sign at site of Dormitian of the Theotokos, built by Hyakinthos. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

If you have traveled much in the Middle East you have likely seen several sites associated with the dormitian of Mary, the place where she went to sleep before being assumed into heaven, according to Catholic and Orthodox theology. Our guide for the day to Nicea/Iznik waits for us to make our photo before entering the few remaining ruins of the church.

Guide waiting to take us into ruins of the Dormitian church. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Guide waiting to take us into ruins of the Dormitian church. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

This church was built by Bishop Hyakinthos in the 7th or 8th century. Only with flash and some work in Photoshop was I able to show this much of the structure. The Blue Guide Turkey “The Lascarid emperor, Theodore 1 (1204-22) was buried here.”

Dark remains of the Dormitian church of the Theotokos. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Dark remains of the Dormitian church of the Theotokos. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

In Part 7 we will move to a few of the modern buildings of Iznik.

Visiting Iznik (Nicea, Nicaea), Turkey – Part 5

The Walls and Gates of Iznik/Nicea

Our first photo shows the Istanbul Gate from inside the city wall. The gates of the city are named much the same way many streets or highways are named in USA cities, to designate the next significant city in that direction.

The Istanbul Gate in the north wall of Iznik/Nicea. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

A portion of the wall of Iznik/Nicea and the Istanbul Gate in the north wall. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

A nice promotional brochure on Iznik, published by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism in 2011 has these comments about the walls and gates.

The pentagon shaped city walls that surround İznik are 4970 metres [about 3.1 miles] in length. Although these city walls were constructed in the Hellenistic era, they have lost all the characteristics peculiar to this era. Only the wall parts constructed in the Roman and Byzantine periods have survived to the present. In the 8th century, the city walls were made higher and the bastions were built by using the construction materials brought from the theatre.
Historic Gates   The historic gates in İznik were actually constructed as triumphal arches in the reigns of the Emperor Vespasianus (69–79) and Emperor Titus (79–81), and were restored to a large scale in the time of Emperor Hadrian [117-138]. The city walls were built by connecting these arches to each other. Reflecting the architectural technique and style of the Roman Period, the İstanbul, Lefke and Yenişehir gates still stand splendid today, although the remaining gate, the Göl Gate is in ruins. (p. 17)

From the outside we see a portion of the Istanbul gate as one enters Iznik.

The Istanbul Gate in the north wall of Iznik/Nicea. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Istanbul Gate in the north wall of Iznik/Nicea. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Yenişehir Gate, marking the south entry to Iznik, is still in need of considerable repair. Several of the old towers are visible at various places around the city wall.

The Yenişehir Gate on the south side of Iznik. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Yenişehir Gate on the south side of Iznik. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Lefke Gate on the east side of the walled city of Iznik is probably the most interesting one. First we see ruins of an ancient aqueduct.

The Lefke Gate Aqueduct on the east side of Iznik. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Lefke Gate Aqueduct on the east side of Iznik. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Then we see the outer Lefke Gate. There are numerous examples of recycled materials in this gate.

The Lefke Outer Gate. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Lefke Outer Gate. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The first of the inner gates have Greek inscriptions showing that it was dedicated to the Roman Emperor Hadrian in A.D. 123.

Roman period inscriptions are visible in the Lefke Gate. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Roman period inscriptions are visible in the Lefke Gate. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

There seems to have been no restoration of the Lake (Göl) Gate, but some portions of the towers and walls can be seen.

Ruins of the Lake Gate. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Ruins of the Lake (Gate. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

We will stop here and continue in the next post to show you a few other important structures in Iznik/Nicea.

Visiting Iznik (Nicea, Nicaea), Turkey – Part 4

The Seventh Ecumenical Council

The first ecumenical council in the fourth century did not achieve unity among Christians. Oxford theologian Allister McGrath comments about doctrines concerning Jesus in Studies in Doctrine (23).

“Theology is often regarded as idle and pointless speculation about irrelevancies – a harmless, if somewhat pointless, pastime of frustrated academics and bishops with time on their hands. If any area of Christian thought has been characterized by apparently pointless speculation of this sort, it is Christology. Gregory of Nyssa [Nyssa was the ancient name of Nevşehir in Cappadocia.], writing in the fourth century, complained that it was impossible to go out shopping in downtown Constantinople without having to put up with speculation of this sort:”

“Constantinople [modern Istanbul] is full of mechanics and slaves, every one of them profound theologians, who preach in the shops and streets. If you want someone to change a piece of silver, he tells you about how the Son differs from the Father; if you ask the price of a loaf of bread, you are told that the Son is inferior to the Father, if you ask whether the bath is ready, you are told that the Son was created from nothing.”

After five other councils, Nicea would again be host to the seventh and last ecumenical council in A.D. 787. This one would deal with the iconoclastic controversy. Fatih Cimok set forth the question,

“Was it right to make painted or sculpted representations of Jesus and the saints, and direct homage to such images?” (Biblical Anatolia: From Genesis to the Councils, 201)

The conflict remained a matter of doctrinal argument until Leo III enforced iconoclasm (removal of the icons – eikons – or images from the churches) in A.D. 726. Irene, the mother of the infant Constantine VI, wanted to restore the icons. Moving cautiously,

She decided to summon a second council in Nicaea. It was held in the church of St. Sophia, whose restored ruins still survive. Among other things the council declared that icons deserved reverence (Greek proskynesis) but not adoration (Greek latreia) which was due to God alone and condemned the iconoclasts. (Cimok, Biblical Anatolia, 202)

Our photo below show the present state of the building, but it has undergone many changes over the centuries. It is presumed to have been used as a place of Christian worship during the Byzantine period. After damages caused by earthquakes in the 11th century many changes were made in the building. After Orhangazi’s conquest of Iznik in A.D. 1331, the building was converted to a mosque. Notice the top of the minaret to the right of the Turkish flag. The latest remodeling was in 2007. The building now serves as a museum. (Info based on signs at the site.)

Haghia Sophia (Orhan) Mosque in Iznik. It is thought that the 7th Ecumenical Council met in the building at this site. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Hagia Sophia (Orhan) Mosque in Iznik. It is thought that the 7th Ecumenical Council met in the building at this site. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Here is the modern entrance to the building. The names indicate the various historical periods. Ayasofya (= Hagia Sophia or Saint Sofia, the church); Orhan recalls the conquest by Orhan Gazi in 1331 when the building was converted into a mosque (= Camii).

The entrance to the restored Haghia Sofia - Orhan - Mosque. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The entrance to the restored Hagia Sofia – Orhan – Mosque. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The next photo shows the interior of the building. In an enlargement of the apse one can see some faint drawings (icons).

Interior of the Haghia Sophia (Orhan) Mosque in Itnik. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Interior of the Hagia Sophia Church (Orhan) Mosque in Iznik. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The information at the site claims that this was seating for (some of?) the bishops attending the 7th Ecumenical Council. Definitely not a plush assignment.

Seats for the bishops attending the 7th Ecumenical Council. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Seats for the bishops attending the 7th Ecumenical Council. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

After the second Nicean Council icons in the form of mosaics, paintings, or statuary became common in both the Eastern and Western Church. The example below shows the Deesis (enthronement, Christ Pantocrator) from the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul). The complete 12th century mosaic shows Jesus flanked by Mary and John the Baptism.

The Deesis from Hagia Sophia in Istanbul shows Jesus enthroned with Mary and John the Baptist on either side. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Deesis from Hagia Sophia in Istanbul shows Jesus enthroned with Mary and John the Baptist on either side. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Our next article will show you some of the wall and the gates of Iznik/Nicea.

Visiting Iznik (Nicea, Nicaea), Turkey – Part 3

The First Ecumenical Council

If the New Testament is the complete and final revelation of God’s will to man, as it claims (2 Timothy 3:16-17), then no council of men, of whatever rank, has the right to change the apostolic order.

But as the churches grew and became popular, they began to imitate the government in leadership and they became more important to the leaders of the Roman Empire. When a controversy concerning the nature of Christ threatened to divide the Christians, the Emperor Constantine the Great (A.D. 307-337) called a council to meet at Nicea (or Nicaea, modern Iznik in Turkey) to discuss the issues.

Arian (c. A.D. 250-336), a presbyter of the church in Alexandria, Egypt, taught that Jesus was a created being inferior to God the Father. We speak of those who followed his teaching as Arians. It was this teaching that prompted the convening of the Council of Nicea in A.D. 325. Most works on church history covering this period will have a section devoted to Arian and the Council of Nicea.

Certain Latin terms entered the language of Christendom at that time.

  1. Homoousios – meaning that Jesus was of the same essence as God. This was the position taken by those gathered at the Council of Nicea.
  2. Homoiousios – meaning that Jesus was of like essence as God.
  3. Heteroousios – meaning that Jesus was of a different essence or substance than God. This view which relegated Jesus to a secondary god beneath the Father was the view of Arian and his followers.

There had been other councils, but this was the first that was to represent all of Christendom. In this sense the gathering failed. Of the 200 to nearly 400 church leaders (the numbers vary depending on the source) gathered at Nicea only a handful of them were from the West (the Latin or Roman church). The vast majority were from the East (the Greek church).

Constantine…

supplied postal wagons to transport bishops to Nicaea, as well as food and lodging during their trips. While they were in the city he took care of their needs and provided a large building for their sessions. (Cambridge History of Christianity, II:73.)

The imperial palace, located on the shore of Lake Ascania (Iznik), now lies nearly ten feet below water due to earthquakes (“Underwater basilica in Iznik to shed light on Roman era.” Hurriyet Daily News, July 25, 2016). Our guide took us to the location outside the Lake Gate where a few ruins could be seen. Ben Witherington says,

Unfortunately for this city, earthquakes struck in A.D. 358, 362, and 368, ruining many of the monumental buildings and structures (http://benwitherington.blogspot.com/2008/06/historic-nicea-iznik.html).

A fisherman stands on some of the ruins of the ancient imperial palace. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

A fisherman stands on some of the ruins of the ancient imperial palace. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Notice a few stones above the current water level and the dark shadow of some ruins below the surface in the next photo.

A few ruins of the palace where the first council met can be seen underneath the water. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

A few ruins of the palace where the first council met can be seen underneath the water. At least one portion of stone emerges from the water. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

In our last photo you will see some of the red tile (or brick) typical of the late Roman/early Byzantine period, as well as part of a marble column.

Late Roman and early Byzantine material. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Late Roman and early Byzantine material. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

In case you have read or heard that the Council of Nicea is responsible for the content of the canon of the New Testament I suggest you read Justin L. Petersen’s 2011 article (Petersen, Justin L. “Making (up) History: Fact, Fiction, and the First Council of Nicaea.” Ed. Wayne A. Detzler. Christian Apologetics Journal 9.1 (2011): 67-77).

Visiting Iznik (Nicea, Nicaea), Turkey – Part 2

Read Part I here.

The Testimony of History Regarding
Church Government

Churches and religious doctrines were not always what they are today. In fact, in New Testament times (during the first century A.D.) there were no major branches of Christendom, no denominations. There was no church organization larger than a single local church overseen by a plurality of bishops (overseers), elders, or shepherds. These terms were used interchangeably. Today, however, one encounters hundreds of denominational groups, and universal organizations. What has happened since the first century to bring about this change? It did not happen suddenly, but was a gradual process over the centuries.

The Apostles of Christ warned in their sermons and letters of departures or apostasy from apostolic teaching and practice. See Acts 20:29-30, 2 Thessalonians 2:3, and 1 Timothy 4:1 as examples. Notice Paul’s warning to the elders of the church at Ephesus barely a quarter of a century after the establishment of the church in Jerusalem in A.D. 30.

I know that after my departure fierce wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock;  and from among your own selves will arise men speaking twisted things, to draw away the disciples after them.  (Acts 20:29-30 ESV)

Emperor Constantine the Great (A.D. 507-337). Statue in Istanbul Archaeological Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Emperor Constantine the Great (A.D. 307-337). Statue in Istanbul Archaeological Museum. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Historian Philip Schaff wrote about the changes in church government which were evident by the second century:

“We cannot therefore assume any strict uniformity. But the whole church spirit of the age tended towards centralization; it everywhere felt a demand for compact, solid unity; and this inward bent, amidst the surrounding dangers of persecution and heresy, carried the church irresistibly towards the episcopate…. Such a unity was offered in the bishop, who held a monarchical, or more properly a patriarchal relation to the congregation…. And in proportion as every church pressed towards a single centre, this central personage must acquire a peculiar importance and subordinate the other presbyters to itself…” (History of the Christian Church, II:142-143).

“Among the city bishops the metropolitans rose above the rest, that is, the bishops of the capital cities of the provinces” (Schaff, II:153).

Immediately after the discussion of the monarchal episcopate, Schaff discussed “Germs of the Papacy.” In A.D. 588, John the Faster, patriarch of Constantinople [later known as Istanbul], assumed the title of “universal bishop.” The emperor, in A.D. 606, took the title from John and conferred it upon Boniface III, bishop of Rome. This was the first pope, almost 600 years after the establishment of the New Testament church.

F. F. Bruce says,

“There was in apostolic times no distinction between elders (presbyters) and bishops such as we find from the second century onwards: the leaders of the Ephesian church are indiscriminately described as elders, bishops (i.e. superintendents) and shepherds (or pastors)” (Bruce, The Book of Acts, 415).

By the fourth century enough changes had taken place that the Roman emperor Constantine called together the bishops of the churches, mostly from the eastern part of his empire, to discuss various issues that were dividing the churches.

The Arch of Constantine with the Colosseum in the background. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The Arch of Constantine with the Colosseum in the background. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

This is where Iznik (ancient Nicaea or Nicea) enters the picture. In A.D. 325 the first of seven Ecumenical councils was held here. After five more councils in Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, the seventh of these councils was held again in Nicea.

In the next post we will begin our visit of Nicea.

Visiting Iznik (Nicea, Nicaea), Turkey – Part 1

This is the first in a series of posts about Nicea, the site of the first and seventh ecumenical councils.

My travels in Turkey – A brief survey

A couple of years ago I wrote a little piece here about why a Bible student should want to visit Turkey. In a category entitled Post New Testament church history I said,

The Ecumenical Councils met in the place we now call Turkey in the following cities: Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus, Chalcedon.

My first trip to Turkey was in 1968 when I visited the area of the seven churches of the book of Revelation and the city of Istanbul. It was not until 1984 that I went back to the area with Melvin Curry and Phil Roberts, a couple of teaching colleagues, for a more detailed study. We also visited several of the Greek islands mentioned in the Bible. Then in 1985 I put together a tour I called, from that time forward, Steps of Paul and John. This tour included biblical sites in Greece and Turkey. At the end of that tour Raymond Harris, a fellow preacher, and I visited all of the sites associated with Paul’s first journey with the exception of Cyprus – a place I had already visited.

Melvin Curry, Ferrell Jenkins, Phil Roberts in Heraklion, Crete.

In Heraklion, Crete, we stayed with a former student and her family during the 1984 trip. My recollection is that she made this photo as we left for the airport to go to Athens. Left to right: Melvin Curry, Ferrell Jenkins, Phil Roberts.

In 1987 I conducted my first Ancient Crossroads tour to include the Hittite territory of Anatolia, Cappadocia, and the sites associated with Paul’s first journey. In 1995 the Steps of Paul and John tour included a cruise of the Greek islands. This cruise, touching at places like Patmos, Rhodes, and Crete, would be repeated several times over the years.

I had been able to visit most New Testament sites in Turkey, but certain Old Testament sites had eluded me because they were far away in eastern Turkey near the borders of Syria, Iraq, Iran and the Soviet Union (now Armenia). In 1995 I was joined by Curtis Pope with whom I taught, and his brother Kyle, for a visit in eastern Turkey. We picked up a car in Adana, visited sites associated with Abraham and the Patriarchs, and went through the region of Urartu as far as the traditional Mount Ararat.

That is an excursion I would repeat in more detail in 2007 with Leon Mauldin, David Padfield, and Gene Taylor. Leon and I went back to the region of Paddan-Aram in 2014. In 2007, we had visited the Black Sea region of Turkey to explore the cities that might have been visited by the messenger who delivered the Epistles of Peter. See this Index of Articles dealing with this subject. This included the Roman provinces of Pontus and Bithynia.

Eastern Turkey tour by Padfield, Mauldin, Jenkins, and Taylor (left to right). Carchemish in the background.

Eastern Turkey tour by Padfield, Mauldin, Jenkins, and Taylor (left to right). Carchemish is in the background center. We joked that we were out, standing in our field.

Now it was time to visit the site of two of the Ecumenical Councils in Bithynia. Leon and I arranged to do this in 2014. From Istanbul it is possible to rent a car and travel to Iznik (Nicaea, Nicea) across one of the bridges connecting Europe with Asia. That would take a lot of time. We decided to hire a guide/driver to pick us up at our hotel in Istanbul in Europe, take a ferry across the Sea of Mamara to the Asian side into ancient Bithynia, and visit Iznik in one day. This excursion would cost us almost $900.

The return ferry from Nicea to Istanbul. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The return ferry from Nicea to Istanbul. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Here is where I hope to pick up in the next article and begin to tell you about the visit to Iznik. There will probably be about seven articles in the series, with lots of photos. I trust you will find them interesting and profitable.

Divers make spectacular discovery in Caesarea harbor

Divers Ran Feinstein (R) and Ofer Ra'anan after discovery. Credit: The Old Caesarea Diving Center.

Divers Ran Feinstein (R) and Ofer Ra’anan after discovery. Credit: The Old Caesarea Diving Center.

The Israeli papers are ablaze today with photos of a discovery made by two divers in the ancient port of Caesarea in the Caesarea National Park. The official news release of the Israel Antiquities Authority reads in part:

As soon as they emerged from the water divers Ran Feinstein and Ofer Ra‘anan of Ra‘anana contacted the Israel Antiquities Authority and reported the discovery and removal of several ancient items from the sea.

A joint dive at the site together with IAA archaeologists revealed that an extensive portion of the seabed had been cleared of sand and the remains of a ship were left uncovered on the sea bottom: iron anchors, remains of wooden anchors and items that were used in the construction and running of the sailing vessel. An underwater salvage survey conducted in recent weeks with the assistance of many divers from the Israel Antiquities Authority and volunteers using advanced equipment discovered numerous items that were part of the ship’s cargo.

Many of the artifacts are bronze and in an extraordinary state of preservation: a bronze lamp depicting the image of the sun god Sol, a figurine of the moon goddess Luna, a lamp in the image of the head of an African slave, fragments of three life-size bronze cast statues, objects fashioned in the shape of animals such as a whale, a bronze faucet in the form of a wild boar with a swan on its head, etc. In addition, fragments of large jars were found that were used for carrying drinking water for the crew in the ship and for transportation at sea. One of the biggest surprises in particular was the discovery of two metallic lumps composed of thousands of coins weighing c. 20 kilograms which was in the form of the pottery vessel in which they were transported.

Jacob Sharvit, director of the Marine Archaeology Unit of the IAA, and Dror Planer, deputy director of the Unit, comment:

“These are extremely exciting finds, which apart from their extraordinary beauty, are of historical significance. The location and distribution of the ancient finds on the seabed indicate that a large merchant ship was carrying a cargo of metal slated recycling, which apparently encountered a storm at the entrance to the harbor and drifted until it smashed into the seawall and the rocks”. A preliminary study of the iron anchors suggests there was an attempt to stop the drifting vessel before it reached shore by casting anchors into the sea; however, these broke – evidence of the power of the waves and the wind which the ship was caught up in”.

Sharvit and Planer stress, “A marine assemblage such as this has not been found in Israel in the past thirty years. Metal statues are rare archaeological finds because they were always melted down and recycled in antiquity. When we find bronze artifacts it usually occurs at sea. Because these statues were wrecked together with the ship, they sank in the water and were thus ‘saved’ from the recycling process”. Sharvit and Planer added, “In the many marine excavations that have been carried out in Caesarea only very small number of bronze statues have been found, whereas in the current cargo a wealth of spectacular statues were found that were in the city and were removed from it by way of sea. The sand protected the statues; consequently they are in an amazing state of preservation – as though they were cast yesterday rather than 1,600 years ago”. The coins that were discovered bear the image of the emperor Constantine who ruled the Western Roman Empire (312–324 CE) and was later known as Constantine the Great, ruler of the Roman Empire (324–337 CE), and of Licinius, an emperor who ruled the eastern part of the Roman Empire and was a rival of Constantine, until his downfall in a battle that was waged between the two rulers.

The harbor at Caesarea. The Apostle Paul used this harbor many times during his preaching tour, and from here was taken to Rome to stand trial before Caesar. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The harbor at Caesarea. The Apostle Paul used this harbor many times during his preaching tours, and from here was taken to Rome to stand trial before Caesar. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. A.D. 265–c.339), often designated “The Father of Church History,” was active at Caesarea at the time this ship sank.

Here are photos of some of the items discovered.

A figurine of Dionysus, the god of wine. Photo: courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

A figurine of Dionysus, the god of wine. Photo: courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

And, a new way to preserve your money.

Lumps of coins that were discovered at sea, weighing a total of c. 20 kilograms. Photographic credit: Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Lumps of coins that were discovered at sea, weighing a total of c. 20 kilograms. Photographic credit: Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Decorated lamps with twice the light.

A bronze lamp decorated with the image of the sun god Sol. Photographic credit: Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

A bronze lamp decorated with the image of the sun god Sol. Photographic credit: Clara Amit, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

The view under water.

Fragment of a bronze lamp decorated with the image of the sun god Sol, as discovered on the seabed. Photo: Ran Feinstein.

Fragment of a bronze lamp decorated with the image of the sun god Sol, as discovered on the seabed. Photo: Ran Feinstein.

And the nicest thing about all of this…  According to the release, the two divers will be invited to tour the storerooms of the National Treasures. I may take up diving.

HT: Joseph I. Lauer