Monthly Archives: February 2016

Pigeon Valley and Uçhisar in Cappadocia

Both here and on social media a large number of readers showed an interest in our recent post about the fairy chimneys of Cappadocia here. I thought you might enjoy seeing some pictures in the vicinity of Pigeon Valley. Three well-fed pigeons are standing guard over the entrance to the sign pointing to the trail for those who wish to hike in the valley.

Pigeon Valley sign in Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Pigeon Valley sign in Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Hundreds of pigeons make their way through the valley to the delight of the bus loads of tourists and hikers who stop by.

Pigeons flying in Pigeon Valley, Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Pigeons flying in Pigeon Valley, Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

From Pigeon Valley one has a great view of the natural fortress of Uçhisar. Click on the photo for a larger image. You will be able to see the modern houses built among those dug from the natural formations of the area.

Uchisar in Cappadocia from Pigeon Valley. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

A view of Uchisar in Cappadocia from Pigeon Valley. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The apostle Peter addressed his two epistles to Christians living in Cappadocia (1 Peter 1:1).

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Jerusalem is older than we thought

The first time the word Jerusalem appears in the Bible is in Joshua 10:1, about 1400 B.C., but we understand that the reference to Salem in Genesis 14:18 is an early reference to Jerusalem. Abraham paid tithes to the priest-king Melchizedek.

New archaeological discoveries in the Jerusalem area attest to a well-established settlement as early as the 5th millennium BC, according to a news release Wednesday from the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Excavation director Ronit Lupo of the Israel Antiquities Authority next to the remains of the ancient house. Photo credit: Assaf Peretz, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority

Excavation director Ronit Lupo of the Israel Antiquities Authority next to the remains of the ancient house. Photo credit: Assaf Peretz, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority

Here is the news release:

An important discovery was recently unearthed in north Jerusalem when archaeological excavations on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority prior to the laying of a road in the Shuʻfat neighborhood [Shuʻfat is a short distance south of the site of Gibeah] – initiated and financed by Moriah, the Jerusalem Development Company – revealed the remains of an ancient settlement from the Chalcolithic period, approximately 7,000 years ago (fifth millennium BCE).

During the Chalcolithic period, man started using tools made of copper (chalcos in Greek) for the first time while continuing to use tools made of stone (lithos), hence the name given to the period. According to Dr. Omri Barzilai, Head of the IAA’s Prehistory Branch, “The Chalcolithic period is known in the Negev, the coastal plain, the Galilee and the Golan, but is almost completely absent in the Judean Hills and Jerusalem. Although in recent years we have discovered a few traces of Chalcolithic settlements, such as those at Abu Gosh, Motza Junction, and the Holyland compound in Jerusalem, they have been extremely sparse. Now, for the first time, we have discovered significant remains from 7,000 years ago.”

Basalt bowl. Photo credit: Assaf Peretz, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority

Basalt bowl. Photo credit: Assaf Peretz, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority

The excavation exposed two dwelling houses with well-preserved remains and floors containing various installations as well as pottery vessels, flint tools, and a basalt bowl, all typical of the period. The construction phases and signs of their maintenance show that the buildings were used for a considerable time.

According to Ronit Lupo, director of excavations for the Israel Antiquities Authority: “On completion of the excavations at Shuʻfat, it is quite evident that there was a thriving settlement in the Jerusalem area in ancient times. Thousands of years later, the buildings uncovered are of a standard that would not fall short of Jerusalem’s architecture. This discovery represents a highly significant addition to our research of the city and the vicinity. Apart from the pottery, the fascinating flint finds attest to the livelihood of the local population in prehistoric times: Small sickle blades for harvesting cereal crops, chisels and polished axes for building, borers and awls, and even a bead made of carnelian (a gemstone), indicating that jewelry was either made or imported. The grinding tools, mortars and pestles, like the basalt bowl, attest to technological skills as well as to the kinds of crafts practiced in the local community. We also recovered a few bones of sheep/goat and possibly cattle; these will be analyzed further in the Israel Antiquities Authority laboratories, permitting us to recreate the dietary habits of the people who lived here 7,000 years ago and enhancing our understanding of the settlement’s economy.”

7,000-year-old bead. Photo credit: Ronit Lupo, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority

7,000-year-old bead. Photo credit: Ronit Lupo, courtesy Israel Antiquities Authority

HT: Joseph Lauer; the major Israeli newspapers.

The fairy chimneys of Cappadocia

The New Testament mentions Cappadocia only twice.

  1. Devout Jews from Cappadocia were present in Jerusalem on Pentecost (Acts 2:9).
  2. Peter’s letters were addressed to Christians living in Cappadocia (1 Pet. 1:1).

In the centuries after New Testament times many Christians settled in this volcanic region of perhaps 50,000 cones, now part of Turkey.

John Freely describes Cappadocia in these words:

“Most of this part of Cappadocia is covered with a deep layer of tufa, a soft stone of solidified mud, ash and lava which once poured down from the now extinct volcanoes on Hasan Dagi and Ericiyes Dagi, the two great mountain peaks of Cappadocia. In the eons since then the rivers of the region have scoured canyons, gorges, valleys and gulleys through the soft and porous stone, and the elements have eroded it into fantastic crags, folds, turrets, pyramids, spires, needles, stalagmites, and cones, creating a vast outdoor display of stone sculptures in an incredible variety of shapes and colours” (The Companion Guide to Turkey, 238).

Our first photo today shows an area of Cappadocia known as Pasabagi Valley where the fairy chimneys may be seen in abundance.

Fairy Chimneys in Pasabagi Valley, Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Fairy Chimneys in Pasabagi Valley, Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The second photo is from the same area, but shows cones.

Fairy Chimneys in Pasabagi Valley, Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Fairy Chimneys in Pasabagi Valley, Cappadocia. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Digging in the vineyard

Vineyards are mentioned in more than 100 verses of the Bible. When traveling in the Bible lands one still sees many vineyards and the various work activities related to them.

The photo below was made south of Bethlehem. It shows a man digging in the rocky soil within a vineyard.

Man digging in vineyard between Bethlehem and Hebron. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Man digging in vineyard between Bethlehem and Hebron. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

One might recall the song of the unfruitful vineyard in Isaiah 5.

He dug it and cleared it of stones, and planted it with choice vines; he built a watchtower in the midst of it, and hewed out a wine vat in it; and he looked for it to yield grapes, but it yielded wild grapes. (Isaiah 5:2 ESV)

Or the parable of Jesus in Matthew 21.

“Hear another parable. There was a master of a house who planted a vineyard and put a fence around it and dug a winepress in it and built a tower and leased it to tenants, and went into another country. (Matthew 21:33 ESV)

The aqueducts at Caesarea Maritima

At Caesarea Maritima, visitors may see the high-level aqueduct at the point where it comes to an end likely due to erosion from the waves of the sea. According to Murphy-O’Connor the eastern channel (on the right) was “built by a Roman Procurator about the middle of the C1 AD.” The western channel was built by Hadrian. Some attribute the eastern channel to Herod the Great.

The high level aqueduct at Caesarea Maritima. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The high level aqueduct at Caesarea Maritima. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The next image is an aerial photo showing a long stretch of the high level aqueduct at Caesarea. You can also see the low level aqueduct a few yards inland (east). The low level aqueduct was built in the late 4th or early 5th century A.D.

Aerial view of the aqueduct north of the city. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Aerial view of the aqueduct north of the city. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Caesarea Maritima was a first century Roman capital and seaport. The gospel was first preached to the Gentiles here when Peter came from Joppa to Caesarea to tell Cornelius words by which he could be saved (Acts 10, 11).

The Apostle Paul used the harbor at Caesarea several times. He was imprisoned in the city for two years before departing for Rome (Acts 24:27; 27:1).