Isaiah 9 contains several geographical references. I decided to concentrate on the reference to the Philistines in verse 12. Notice that the text mentions the Syrians (Arameans) on the east, literally northeast of Israel and Judah, and the Philistines on the west (literally the southwest).
“The Syrians on the east and the Philistines on the west devour Israel with open mouth. For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still.” (Isaiah 9:12 ESV)
Both powers were perennial enemies of Israel. Both would take part in attacks on Israel. The Philistines also are mentioned in 2:6 and 11:14.
It is commonly understoos that the Philistines of the Old Testament were the Sea People. The five major cities of the Philistines were Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron (1 Samuel 6:17).
The temple of Medinet Habu is located near the Colossi of Memnon at Thebes (Luxor), Egypt. The temple was built during the reign of Rameses III (reigned 1186–1155 B.C.). The structures at the site were built by the Pharaoh to serve as an administrative complex and funerary temple. The most interesting aspects of the temple to me are the reliefs of the Sea Peoples that the king claims to have subjugated. Notice that some of these men are bound.
These peoples might seem more powerful than Israel at the moment, but the LORD will punish them. Both Damascus and the Philistines fell to the Assyrians within a few years.
The LORD continued to remind Israel and Judah that He was willing to save them from the coming oppression:
For all this his anger has not turned away, and his hand is stretched out still. (Isaiah 9:21 ESV)