Category Archives: Culture

Graves vandalized on Mount of Olives

According to The Times of Israel more than 40 graves have been vandalized at the Mount of Olives cemetery. You may be able to access the short article here.

Jewish graves on the Mount of Olives. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Jewish graves on the Mount of Olives. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The western slope of the Mount of Olives is filled with Jewish graves. Numerous Moslem graves can be seen along the eastern wall of the Old City of Jerusalem. Our next photo shows many of the graves on the Mount of Olives and the Kidron Valley. Look along the wall of the Old City for Muslim graves, with a large number visible at the right of the photo (near the Lion Gate).

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Vandalism of graves is not new. We have reported on vandalized graves in the Protestant Cemetery on Mount Zion here and here, and the Midras Ruins rolling stone tomb from the Roman period here.

We have also called attention to fake tombs near the Temple Mount here.

In either case, it is sad.

Paris and the Louvre

Paris is known as the City of Light. From the roof of our hotel in the St. Michel area we could see some of the significant monuments. This photo, made without tripod, shows the Eiffel Tower. I think the building to the left is the Hotel des Invalides which among other things is the burial site of Napoleon Bonaparte. The building to the right is St. Germain des Prés. In the opposite direction from the hotel we had a nice view of the Cathedral of Notre Dame.

Paris at Night. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Paris at Night. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

We were able to spend two of our Paris days in the Louvre. This museum displays excellent collections of archaeological artifacts from Mesopotamia, Persia (Iran), the Levant (Syria, Jordan, some sites of the current West Bank), Greece, and Rome. There is an Egyptian collection, but I do not find it as satisfactory as the other collections.

The Louvre is always closed on Tuesday and certain rooms may be closed on other days, or a half day. Years ago I learned to have two or three days in Paris in order to be able to visit all of the galleries I wanted to see. Yes, we saw the Mona Lisa, too.

The lines to get tickets for the Louvre are long. The photo below shows two of the six or more places to buy tickets, in addition to automated machines, under the great pyramid. It is best to buy tickets online or from one of the shops such as the Tourism office near the Opera. Tickets are about $20.00 per person for each day of entry. Those with tickets are able to enter through a short line while long lines wait outside just to get into the building to wait in line to buy tickets. The Museum web site explains about advance tickets under “Plan Your Visit” here.

One of the ticket lines at the Louvre. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

One of the ticket lines inside the Louvre. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

There were large crowds in the Louvre. Some galleries attract guides with tour groups. It’s fun to watch. The guide is nearly running with an umbrella or flag. The tourists are trying to keep up, but snapping their cameras or cell phones at busts they probably will not be able to identify once they are at home. I saw a young lady making a photo of the Roman Diana. I assume she had been at Disneyland Paris a day or two earlier. She did a nice job of composing her photo. When I saw her later and noted that she was a young teenager I was impressed that she wanted to visit the Louvre.

Euro Disney one day; the Louvre the next day. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Euro Disney one day; the Louvre the next day. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

I have been to China, but I think most of the citizens have come to Berlin, Paris, and London to visit the museums.

Photography is permitted in the Louvre. I even made a few shots using flash when I thought it would not damage the artifact. None of the guards seemed to object. Items behind glass always create a problem for photographers. By visiting the museum two days I was able to check the first photos to be sure they were sharp. On the second day I was able to remake some of those that were not good.

Small awl may provide evidence of the earliest use of metal in Middle East

Copper awl.

The ancient awl. Estimated to be from the end of the sixth or the beginning of the fifth millennium BCE. Photo: Yosef Garfinkel.

The following report is a press notice released by Media Relations of Haifa University, Thursday, August 21, 2014.

An awl-inspiring find at Tel Tsaf: The oldest metal object found to date in the Middle East

According to Dr. Danny Rosenberg of the University of Haifa’s Zinman Institute of Archaeology, the copper awl is a unique and very rare artifact, whose discovery, along with other items during the excavations at Tel Tsaf in the Jordan Valley, indicates that the site was an ancient international commercial center.

A copper awl, the oldest metal object found to date in the Middle East, was discovered during the excavations at Tel Tsaf, according to a recent study published by researchers from the Zinman Institute of Archaeology and the Department of archaeology at the University of Haifa , in conjunction with researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the German Archaeological Institute of Berlin. According to the study, which appeared in the prestigious journal PLOS One, the awl dates back to the late 6th millennium or the early 5th millennium BCE, moving back by several hundred years the date it was previously thought that the peoples of the region began to use metals.

Tel Tsaf, a Middle Chalcolithic village dated to about 5200-4600 BCE, is located near the Jordan River and the international border with Jordan. The site was first documented in the 1950s and excavations there began at the end of the 1970s. From the earliest digs nearly 40 years ago, this area, the most important archaeological site in the region dated to this period, has been supplying researchers with a great deal of valuable data, and continues to do so during this latest research project led by Dr. Danny Rosenberg of the University of Haifa in conjunction with Dr. Florian Klimscha of the Eurasia Department of the German Archaeological Institute in Berlin. For example, the researchers learned of the communites great wealth and the long-distance commercial ties it maintained from the large buildings made of mud-bricks and the large number of silos in which wheat and barley were stored on an unprecedented scale. There were many roasting ovens in the courtyards, all filled with burnt animal bones testifying to the holding of large events and many other findings, among them items made of obsidian (a volcanic glass with origins in Anatolia or Armenia), shells from the Nile River in Egypt and other areas around the Mediterranean, figurines of people and animals, and pottery unlike that found in almost any other location in the region.

But the most important finding to date is only 4 centimeters long. This unique item, a copper awl, which is 1 millimeter thick at the tip that was set in a wooden handle, was actually found during a previous excavation at the site by Prof. Yosef Garfinkel of the Hebrew University. The cone-shaped awl was found in a sealed grave of a woman about 40 years old that was dug inside a silo, and around her waist was a belt made of 1,668 ostrich-egg shell beads. The grave was covered with several large stones, and according to Dr. Rosenberg, its location within a silo testifies to both the importance of the deceased and the importance the community ascribed to the facility in which she was buried.

But while the grave, the woman’s skeleton, and the beaded belt were all previously reported in scientific journals, the little awl was only reported on recently, after its chemical components were analyzed by Prof. Sariel Shalev of the Department of Archaeology at the University of Haifa. As noted, the awl was found to made of copper, and according to Dr. Rosenberg, the fact that it was found just above the skeleton ad in a sealed grave, meant that it was buried with the woman, apparently as a burial offering, and may have belonged to her.

This artifact is important because until now, researchers believed that area residents began to use metals only in the Late Chalcolithic period (during the second half of the 5th millennium BCE, so that this finding moves back the appearance of metal in our region by several hundred years. This has significant impact on our understanding of the developing use of complex technologies and the related social contexts.

But this is not the only reason the awl is significant. The chemical examination of the metal shows it may have come from the Caucasus, some 1,000 kilometers from Tel Tsaf. According to Dr. Rosenberg, while the long-distance commercial ties maintained by village communities in our region were already known from even earlier periods, the import of a new technology combined with the processing of a new raw material coming from such a distant location is unique to Tel Tsaf and provides additional evidence of the importance of this site in the ancient world.

The researchers are still not sure what the awl was used for, but the early use of a metal object, as well as its distant source, also testify to the high social status of the woman and the importance of the building she was buried in.

The appearance of the item in a woman’s grave, which represents one of the most elaborate burials we’ve seen in our region from that era, testifies to both the importance of the awl and the importance of the woman, and its possible that we are seeing here the first indications of social hierarchy and complexity, said Dr. Rosenberg. However, in this area far more is unknown than is known, and although the discovery of the awl at Tel Tsaf constitutes evidence of a peak of technological development among the peoples of the region and is a discovery of global importance, there’s a lot of progress still to be made and many parts of the wider picture are still unknown to us”.

It seems that at least some of the questions raised by this unique item will be answered by an interdisciplinary research project we have been conducting at the site since last year, Dr. Rosenberg continued. This project integrates multi-national archaeologists and researchers from a variety of other scientific disciplines, who will address the even more complex questions that will undoubtedly arise.

HT: Joseph Lauer

Boxing in the Greek world

My friends David and Sharon Runner recently traveled with us in Turkey, but made additional excursions into Greece and Italy. David agreed to share this photo of “The Boxer” from the National Roman Museum in Rome.

"The Boxer" in the National Roman Museum. Photo by David Runner.

“The Boxer” in the National Roman Museum. Photo by David Runner.

David describes the statue: “This famous Greek statue called “The Boxer” dates from around 330 B.C. and depicts an ancient fighter, apparently after a match, still wearing his caestus, a leather wrap used as boxing gloves. The small white objects at the bottom of the statue are motion sensors that chime if you get too close. (I found out a couple of times as I moved in a little too much for some close-up pictures.)”

Below is a closeup of the boxers gloves, showing his “brass knuckles.”

Closeup of the hands of "the Boxer". Photo by David Runner.

Closeup of the hands of “the Boxer”. Photo by David Runner.

Paul used a boxing illustration to describe his own disciplined work in preaching.

So I do not run aimlessly; I do not box as one beating the air. But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified. (1 Corinthians 9:26-27 ESV)

Using an animal skin churn

The practice of churning to make butter has been around for thousands of years. It is mentioned in the Wisdom Literature of the Bible.

For the churning of milk produces butter, And pressing the nose brings forth blood; So the churning of anger produces strife. (Proverbs 30:33 NAU)

The ESV consistently uses the word pressing, from the Hebrew mits, three times in that verse.

For pressing milk produces curds, pressing the nose produces blood, and pressing anger produces strife. (Proverbs 30:33 ESV)

The NET Bible probably best conveys the meaning of the text by the use of churning, punching, and stirring up.

For as the churning of milk produces butter and as punching the nose produces blood, so stirring up anger produces strife. (Proverbs 30:33 NET)

The photo below shows a churn made of an animal skin in the reconstructed first century kitchen at Nazareth Village. I remember from childhood that we kept our churn on the hearth near the fire.

A churn in the kitchen. Nazareth Village. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

A churn in the kitchen. Nazareth Village. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Don’t “churn” anyone in the nose today.

The shepherd and the sheepfold

One may visit an ancient biblical site without sensing the reality of people living at the place. One sees only the foundation of ancient buildings. But when one visits Nazareth Village he sees real people acting out the common activities of Bible times.

I have visited Nazareth Village several times and it is always different. It may be because of the time of the year, but sometimes it is because there are different actors filling the various roles. No two visits have been the same. This photo of the shepherd with sheep in the sheepfold was made in May, 2010. Look carefully at the sheep between the sticks of which the sheepfold is made.

Shepherd and sheep fold at Nazareth Village. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Shepherd and sheep fold at Nazareth Village. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

There are several biblical references to the sheepfold, or the fold of the sheep (Jeremiah 50:6; Micah 2:12; John 10:1, 16). Jesus used an illustration involving the sheepfold:

Truly, truly, I say to you, he who does not enter the sheepfold by the door but climbs in by another way, that man is a thief and a robber. But he who enters by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. (John 10:1-2 ESV)

Hadrian’s Arch in Antalya (Attalia)

Many of the Roman ruins we see in the Bible World belong to the early second century. This illustrates the tremendous power of the Empire throughout the region at that time.

Hadrian ruled from A.D. 117-138. We know that one of the major persecutions against Christians came during his reign. Many arches were constructed to honor him. The most impressive Roman ruin in Antalya (Attalia of Acts 14:25) is Hadrian’s Arch. The three-arch gateway was extensively restored between 1960 and 1963.

Hadrian's Arch in Antalya, Turkey. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

Hadrian’s Arch in Antalya, Turkey. Photo by Ferrell Jenkins.

The area around the arch bustles with tourists.